THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

    
    
    

In the year 1869, the Russian chemist Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev began to construct a periodic table that is akin to the one we all study today. Before him, however, other scientists had started classifying different substances. This occured as far back as 330 B.C. in Ancient Greece, when Aristotle and Plato theorized the existence of elements. Other chemists, including Hennig Brand (whose experiments led to the discovery of phosphorous), Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner (who invented the term triads in order to describe the elements in groups of three), and John Newlands (the English chemist who classifed more than sixty elements by their physical properties), all furthered the study of the elements and their qualities. Mendeleev formatted a table in which the elements were organized by their atomic mass and chemical properties. While Mendeleev had made a massive breakthrough in chemistry, his original table had some flaws, such as the absence of the Noble Gases. After Mendeleev, other chemists improved upon the periodic table until its modern-day state.

    
    
    

The Periodic Table organizes the elements by their atomic mass, Hydrogen being the first (with atomic mass 1.008) to the 118th element, Ununoctium (whose atomic mass has not yet been established). The table also classifies elements as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids(an element with properties of or between metals and nonmetals). Each row of the periodic table is a period, while each column is called a group. Each group or period handles different chemical properties of the elements. The first ninety-four elements can be found in nature, while the rest have only been synthesized in laboratories. Each element can also be classified by an abbreviation, an atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus), and their individual amount of electrons.

    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    

If you would like to know more about an element, just click on it!!

    
    
1
IA
11A
            
1
IA
11A
            
Column Number/ Group
U.S. Classification
European Classification
            
5
Boron
B
10.81
            
Atomic Number
Element Name
Element Abbreviation
Atomic Mass
            
18
VIIIA
8A
            
1
Hydrogen
H
1.008
            
2
IIA
2A
            
13
IIIA
3A
            
14
IVA
4A
            
15
VA
5A
            
16
VIA
6A
            
17
VIIA
7A
            
2
Helium
He
4.002
            
3
Lithium
Li
6.94
            
4
Beryllium
Be
9.012
            
5
Boron
B
10.81
            
6
Carbon
C
12.011
            
7
Nitrogen
N
14.007
            
8
Oxygen
O
15.999
            
9
Fluorine
F
18.998
            
10
Neon
Ne
20.179
            
11
Sodium
Na
22.989
            
12
Magnesium
Mg
24.305
            
3
IIIB
3B
            
4
IVB
4B
            
5
VB
5B
            
6
VIB
6B
            
7

8B
            
8
VIIIB
8B
            
9

8B
            
10
VIIIB
8B
            
11
IB
1B
            
12
IIB
2B
            
13
Aluminum
Al
26.981
            
14
Silicon
Si
28.085
            
15
Phosphorus
P
30.973
            
16
Sulfur
S
32.06
            
17
Chlorine
Cl
35.45
            
18
Argon
Ar
39.948
            
19
Potassium
K
39.098
            
20
Calcium
Ca
40.078
            
21
Scandium
Sc
44.955
            
22
Titanium
Ti
47.867
            
23
Vanadium
V
50.941
            
24
Chromium
Cr
51.996
            
25
Manganese
Mn
54.938
            
26
Iron
Fe
55.845
            
27
Cobalt
Co
58.933
            
28
Nickel
Ni
58.693
            
29
Copper
Cu
63.546
            
30
Zinc
Zn
65.38
            
31
Gallium
Ga
69.723
            
32
Germanium
Ge
72.63
            
33
Arsenic
As
74.921
            
34
Selenium
Se
78.971
            
35
Bromine
Br
79.904
            
36
Krypton
Kr
83.798
            
37
Rubidium
Rb
85.467
            
38
Strontium
Sr
87.62
            
39
Yttrium
Y
88.905
            
40
Zirconium
Zr
91.224
            
41
Niobium
Nb
92.906
            
42
Molybdenum
Mo
95.95
            
43
Technetium
Tc
98.907
            
44
Ruthenium
Ru
101.07
            
45
Rhodium
Rh
102.906
            
46
Palladium
Pd
106.42
            
47
Silver
Ag
107.868
            
48
Cadmium
Cd
112.411
            
49
Indium
In
114.818
            
50
Tin
Sn
118.71
            
51
Antimony
Sb
121.76
            
52
Tellurium
Te
127.6
            
53
Iodine
I
126.904
            
54
Xenon
Xe
131.29
            
55
Caesium
Cs
132.905
            
56
Barium
Ba
137.327
            
*

57 - 71
            
72
Hafnium
Hf
178.49
            
73
Tantalum
Ta
180.948
            
74
Tungsten
W
183.85
            
75
Rhenium
Re
168.207
            
76
Osmium
Os
190.23
            
77
Iridium
Ir
192.22
            
78
Platinum
Pt
195.08
            
79
Gold
Au
196.967
            
80
Mercury
Hg
200.59
            
81
Thallium
Tl
204.383
            
82
Lead
Pb
207.2
            
83
Bismuth
Bi
208.98
            
84
Polonium
Po
[208.982]
            
85
Astatine
At
209.987
            
86
Radon
Rn
222.018
            
87
Francium
Fr
223.02
            
88
Radium
Ra
226.025
            
**

89 - 103
            
104
Rutherfordium
Rf
[261]
            
105
Dubnium
Db
[262]
            
106
Seaborgium
Sg
[266]
            
107
Bohrium
Bh
[264]
            
108
Hassium
Hs
[269]
            
109
Meitnerium
Mt
[268]
            
110
Darmstadtium
Ds
[269]
            
111
Roentgenium
Rg
[272]
            
112
Copernicium
Cn
[277]
            
113
Ununtrium
Uut
unknown
            
114
Flerovium
Fl
[289]
            
115
Ununpentium
Uup
unknown
            
116
Livermorium
Lv
[298]
            
117
Ununseptium
Uus
unknown
            
118
Ununoctium
Uuo
unknown
            

An element with [] surrounding its' atomic mass has no stable isotopes. The 
  mass number is that of the element's isotope with the longest half-life.

*
            
57
Lanthanum
La
138.906
            
58
Cerium
Ce
140.115
            
59
Praseodymium
Pr
140.908
            
60
Neodymium
Nd
144.24
            
61
Promethium
Pm
144.913
            
62
Samarium
Sm
150.36
            
63
Europium
Eu
151.966
            
64
Gadolinium
Gd
157.25
            
65
Terbium
Tb
158.925
            
66
Dysprosium
Dy
162.5
            
67
Holmium
Ho
164.93
            
68
Erbium
Er
167.26
            
69
Thulium
Tm
168.934
            
70
Ytterbium
Yb
173.04
            
71
Lutetium
Lu
174.967
            
**
            
89
Actinium
Ac
227.028
            
90
Thorium
Th
232.038
            
91
Protactinium
Pa
231.036
            
92
Uranium
U
238.029
            
93
Neptunium
Np
237.048
            
94
Plutonium
Pu
244.064
            
95
Americium
Am
243.061
            
96
Curium
Cm
247.07
            
97
Berkelium
Bk
247.07
            
98
Californium
Cf
251.08
            
99
Einsteinium
Es
[254]
            
100
Fermium
Fm
257.095
            
101
Mendelevium
Md
258.1
            
102
Nobelium
No
259.101
            
103
Lawrencium
Lr
[262]
            



Element
Series
            
Nonmetal
            
Alkali
Metal
            
Alkaline
Earth
            
Transition
Metal
            
Basic
Metal
            
Semimetal
            
Halogen
            
Noble
Gas
            
Lanthinide
            
Actinide
            


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